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    美国痼疾难除的枪支暴力严重践踏人权(4)(中英对照)

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    Part 3 The Serious Social Problems Caused by the Proliferation of Guns

    三、枪支泛滥带来严重社会问题
    The proliferation of guns and gun violence in the United States has serious consequences. In addition to causing a large number of casualties, it has also bred more violence and crimes, which has greatly reduced the sense of security in US society.
    美国枪支泛滥和枪支暴力产生严重后果。除了造成大量人员伤亡外,还催生更多的暴力和犯罪,使美国社会安全感大大降低。
    1. The proliferation of guns has led to a large number of murders in the United States. Guns are closely linked to murders. The US people own a large number of private guns. The easy access to guns leads to a high possibility of using guns in conflicts. With the intervention of guns, small quarrels may escalate into murders, and criminal acts such as robbery and theft may turn into murder cases if the criminals carry guns. When drugs and guns are linked together, more violent crime can be bred. Organized crimes of the gangs will cause greater harm when employing guns. Given the widespread private gun ownership in US society, it is unavoidable that a large number of guns will be sold illegally and possessed without registration, which increases the difficulty in gun control. All of this directly enhances the murder rate in the United States. According to the Harvard Injury Control Research Center's study of multinational conditions, there is a positive correlation between privately owned guns and murders. In the 1990s, an average of 2 million violent criminal cases and 24,000 murders occurred in the United States per year, 70 percent of which were related to guns. According to a report issued by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, between 2005 and 2012, about 60 percent of intentional murders in the United States were carried out through the use of guns. The close link between guns and violent crimes is also proved by a crime data analysis released in the United States in 2017. According to the study, violent crimes in some states have increased by 10 to 15 percent in 10 years after relaxing restrictions on the issuance of Concealed Pistol Licenses.
    第一,枪支泛滥导致美国谋杀案大量发生。枪支同谋杀联系密切。由于大量枪支散布在美国民间,任何人都比较容易获得,且容易掌握使用技能,所以在冲突中使用枪支的可能性很大。有了枪支介入,小的争吵会升级为凶杀,抢劫、偷盗等犯罪行为如果持枪进行,就有可能演变为谋杀案件。毒品和枪支联系到一起,就可能催生更多的暴力犯罪。黑社会性质的有组织犯罪,会因为枪支的缘故造成更大危害。在社会普遍拥枪的情况下,非法买卖枪支、未经登记而持有枪支的现象必定大量发生,"黑枪"必定更加难以控制。这一切都直接推高了美国的谋杀率。根据哈佛伤害控制研究中心对于多国情况的研究,私人持有枪支越多,谋杀案件发生的数量就越多,两者之间存在正相关关系。20世纪90年代,美国每年平均发生200万件暴力刑事犯罪和2.4万件谋杀案件。这些谋杀案件中的70%与枪支有关。根据联合国毒品与犯罪办公室发布的报告,2005至2012年,美国故意谋杀案中大约有60%都是通过使用枪支来实施的。枪支同暴力犯罪的密切联系也得到美国2017年发布的一项犯罪数据分析的支持。根据这项研究,一些州在放宽对隐匿持枪证的发放限制后,10年内当地暴力犯罪增加了10%至15%。
    2. The proliferation of guns has led to the constant occurrence of school shootings. Frequent school shootings are a peculiar phenomenon and the consequence of the proliferation of guns in the United States. No country with strict gun control suffers as many campus shootings as the United States. As campuses are densely populated public places, it is easy to cause heavy causalities in school shootings. A large collection of juveniles on campus cannot defend themselves, respond to unexpected situations, and are vulnerable in shooting incidents. The horrific experience of shooting incidents can cause long-term harm to many children, leading to problems such as poorer academic performance, social disabilities, depression, anxiety, lack of sleep, and drug abuse. The families of the students are affected as well. Therefore, the social impact of school shootings is extensive. In 2018, there were 25 campus shootings in the United States, affecting 25,332 students, 33 of whom were killed and 61 were injured. More than 4 million children have experienced a campus blockade in the 2017-2018 school year, and many have suffered physical and psychological trauma. Due to the frequent occurrence of school shootings, a peculiar phenomenon that teachers and students carry guns in school has emerged in the United States. Some states have even enacted laws requiring that teachers be equipped with guns.
    第二,枪支泛滥导致校园枪击案不断发生。频繁发生的校园枪击案是美国特有现象,是美国枪支泛滥的结果。世界上其他严格控枪的国家,没有一个国家发生像美国那样多的校园枪击案。校园属人口密集的公共场所,一旦发生枪击案件,很容易造成较大伤亡。校园聚集了大量未成年人,他们缺乏自我防卫和应对意外情况的能力,在枪击事件中易受伤害。枪击事件的恐怖经历会给很多儿童造成长期伤害,导致学习成绩下降、社交障碍、抑郁、焦虑、睡眠不足、药物滥用等问题。每个学生后面都是一个家庭。校园枪击案的社会影响十分广泛。2018年美国共发生25起校园枪击事件,有25332名学生受到影响,其中33人丧生、61人受伤。超过400万少年儿童在2017至2018学年经历了校园封锁,很多人受到身心创伤。由于校园枪击案频繁发生,美国出现了教师持枪上课、学生挎枪上学的奇特景观。美国有的州甚至颁布法律,规定教师必须配枪。
    3. Gun violence has seriously undermined the US people's sense of security. One argument for supporting individual gun ownership is that guns can protect personal safety. But the paradox is that if everyone holds a gun, he or she will become more insecure. Due to the massive shooting incidents and widespread gun violence, the United States has become an extremely insecure country. Its people live in fear and are forced to rely on guns to protect themselves. The laws reflect the fear of the US people. Many state laws allow citizens to shoot in the event of a threat, even if they can escape the threat without the use of weapons. This adds to the sense of insecurity in society. The United States has fallen into a vicious circle. On the one hand, the increasing proliferation of guns in the United States has brought more security risks and increased the number of vicious criminal offenses. On the other hand, every time a shooting incident occurs, more US people will buy guns out of safety concerns and the need for self-defense.
    第三,枪支暴力严重破坏美国民众的安全感。支持个人持枪权的一个论据是枪支能?;じ鋈税踩?。但吊诡的是,如果人人持有枪支,每个人都会变得更不安全。由于大量发生的枪击案件,由于普遍存在的枪支暴力,美国成为一个极度缺乏安全的国家,民众深怀恐惧。他们必须依靠枪支?;ぷ约?。法律反映了美国民众的恐惧心理。许多州的法律允许公民在受到威胁的情况下开枪,即使在他们不用武力能够逃离威胁的情况下也可以开枪。这又加重了整个社会的不安全感。美国陷入了一种恶性循环。一方面,枪支在美国日趋泛滥,带来更多的安全隐患,恶性刑事犯罪日趋增多。另一方面,每当发生枪击事件后,出于对自身安全的担心和自我防卫的需要,更多的美国民众会去购买枪支。
    The US people are living with a strong sense of insecurity. According to a Gallup poll in 2015, 37 percent of interviewees said they did not dare to walk one kilometer away from their household at night, and above 40 percent of the low-income people with annual family incomes below 30,000 US dollars dared not to walk anywhere at night. According to a 2017 survey by the American Journal of Public Health, 9 million American citizens carry a loaded pistol outdoors at least once a month, and 3 million of them even carry guns every day. A February 2016 study by the Journal of the American Medical Association found that Americans were 10 times more likely to be shot than those in other developed countries.
    美国民众的不安全感十分严重。根据2015年的一项盖洛普调查,37%的人表示不敢在离家一公里的范围内走夜路,家庭年收入在三万美元以下的低收入者的不安全感更加强烈,不敢走夜路的比例在40%以上。根据《美国公共卫生杂志》2017年的一项调查报告,有900万美国民众每月至少一次携带装弹手枪外出,其中的300万人甚至每天外出都携枪?!睹拦窖г又尽?016年2月的一项研究发现,美国人被枪杀的几率是其他发达国家的10倍。
    Rampant gun violence is an epitome of serious human rights problems and the consequence of extremely overwhelming individualism in the United States, reflecting its inherent institutional problem. Many people in the United States mistakenly believe that they can protect themselves only with guns. They have forgotten that personal security is inseparable from protection by the state. On the issue of gun control, the United States has driven into a dead end. The demands of US society simply cannot change the legislation and decision-making of the gun issue. On the issue of gun control, we cannot see the effectiveness of US democracy, as it has been undermined by political polarization. Both parties have done nothing and failed to respond to the demands of the reality of US society. Every moment, US society is in danger of suffering from gun violence, and human rights are being trampled on.
    枪支暴力践踏人权是美国存在严重人权问题的缩影,也是美国个人主义极度膨胀的结果,反映了美国固有的制度问题。美国很多人错误地认为,只有拥有枪支才能?;ぷ约?。他们忘记了,个人安全离不开国家的?;?。在控枪问题上,美国已经走入死胡同。美国社会的呼声根本改变不了持枪问题的立法和决策。在控枪问题上,我们看不到"两党极化"背景下美国民主的成效,因为两党都无所作为,回应不了美国社会现实提出的诉求。每时每刻,美国社会都面临发生枪支暴力案件的危险,都在敲响践踏人权的警钟。

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